Science Echoes,10 , 1-8(2006

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# ABSTRACT:  All reference frames moving at constant velocities behave the same, as if they are at rest. All laws of physics are the same in any of these frames. In Einstein’s theory of relativity, the assumption that the speed of light be invariant requires that Newtonian concepts be modified for high velocities. In the Theory of Infinity and The Fifth Dimension Space-Time the assumption that the speed of light is still invariant but not absolute requires that Einstein’s concepts be modified for velocities higher than the speed of light.

=

This means that there is no speed faster than speed of light

## INTRODUCTION

At the end of his book, "Relativity: The Special and General Theory", Einstein leaves us with this: “The main question for the present is to know if a field theory such as the one which we have considered here can generally lead to some main conclusion. By theory I mean one which describes physical reality (including four-dimension space) in a completely encompassing way”. (see [1] ).

In the present paper we are trying to answer Einstein’s question and present the theory that Einstein demand.

Without getting into any discussion about the four dimensions, we will attempt to explain the new dimension entitled the fifth dimension by addressing the following questions:

1.   What is the fifth dimension?

2.   What is the influence of the fifth dimension on physics?

3.   Why do we need the fifth dimension?

4.   Are there other dimensions and do we need more than five?

5. How can we prove the existence of the fifth dimension?

1-                                     The Fifth Dimension

Surly I’m not  the first one who talk’s about the fifth dimension space-time, there was Kaluza-Klein theory for example, and follow by others in history of physics and cosmology , However I tray here to name it and to make it more specific and useable to solve some unsolved problems in physics and cosmology.

As we know in Galilean and Newtonian theory, there are three dimensions: X, Y, Z. Menkowitzcy tell that the fourth dimension is The Time, T (see [2] ) In the Theory of Infinity, the fifth dimension is The Velocity, V.

To understand this assumption of the theory, we need to introduce a more inclusive definition of velocity. There are two ways of looking at velocity:

1.       Dependent velocity is a relation between distance and time (current classical definition).

2.         From the fifth dimension's point of view there is an independent velocity which has an absolute value and a constant value. (For example, the speed of sound and the speed of light and others as speed of Limit, and speed of Noor are constants).

3.         M.S. El Naschie (see [3] ) indicated that it is not strange for velocity to be dimension because velocity means distance divide by time and both are dimensions and by this way we can get solution more simple in many ways.

4.         In time we said that we travelled by speed of light third part of second, it mean that we moved 100,000 km, and the other way give the same results, when we said we travel 100,000 km in speed of light it mean time was third part of second.

Thus, the definition of velocity as the fifth dimension was necessary as discussed of above.

As we know, once the constant speed is surpassed, therefore that light goes through a change phase of matter and becomes “Ultra light”. All these speeds are beyond what we as humans can see. As we need special instruments to hear “ultrasound”, or special instruments to measure “ultra light”, we need a new theory to understand that velocity can be“independent” and it is velocity that creates the fifth dimension and beyond.

With this new understanding of velocity, we can begin to more precisely unravel the construction of the universe in a more complete and comprehensive way. We must look at velocity as a new value that changes the phenomena of physics and as one of professor M El-Sabbagh said (we need the fifth dimension because in his point of view, it can explain many problems in his filed much better).

When velocity is seen as independent variable it creates its own new dimension (the fifth); just as relative time creates its own dimension (the fourth). That is why velocity is the fifth dimension, because if someone moves faster than the speed of light, we can be sure that what he can see or describe will be different than what we can see or describe in four dimensions. The effect of this speed brings (change phase of matter).Einstein proved that time was relative to the motion of mass. There is a difference between the falling points of bodies according to the points of reference (the train, outside the train, or inside it). Einstein studied the question outside the framework of classical physics, where the speed limit is that of the speed of light. In the fifth dimension theory the speed of light is inclusive. Movements change according to the preceding reference points adding to it another point of a person ascending a ray of light. Are the four dimensions sufficient to define movement of the observer at a speed greeter than the speed of light?

2-        The Influence of the Fifth Dimension on the Universe.

The fifth dimension enlarges our knowledge and awareness of the universe. We can understand most of things which the “Theory of Relativity” and other theory’s follow could not explain, and make our world a perceptible physical universe. The world thus passes from the scientific stage to one of knowledge and awareness stage.

3-                              Do we need The Fifth Dimension?

We need the fifth dimension to explain the Metaphysics by way of physics and to explain some of the questions currently puzzling scientists such as: The construction and form of the universe, Attraction, Void, Space, Time, Black Holes, Scattering of Light, Mass and Inertia, Defining Motion, Field and Dark Matter. Since they start to publish about the theory of BIG BANG and they talk much about dark matter, in my book before 1992, I said that we can calculate the mass of first sky (the visible universe) but the rest of masses (dark matter) or the mass of all ball witch begin the BIG BANG it will be difficult to masseur, only if we decide to consider for example that (the visible universe) is about 15% of mass of all universe.

All these questions can be answered now as well as other questions which modern physics could not explain. Also new scientific data or phenomena, such as:  The superluminal (Which move 2.5 times faster than the speed of light) (see [4]), and what have been discovered in the laboratory and the experiments with photonette (move 4.7 times faster than the speed of light) (see [5] ). All these questions can now be answered under the umbrella of this theory.

There are now answers for these questions and I can give some answers for some questions such as:

·         The model of the universe is globular, closed, have age and volume, the earth get in close to the center of it.

·         The diameter of the universe = 3x10 power 23 km

·         The age of universe = 15.8 billion years. ( I have been calculate the age of universe before 1990 with 15,8 billion years)

·         The big bang starts with speed of Noor (100=A),

In the book {Faster than speed of light: the story of a scientific speculation} whish is released 10 years after I edit my book, this book supported many points of my theory, specially about the speed of BIG BANG (Noor) when he call his theory (VSL) varying the speed of light, and when he pose question (did light travel faster in early universe that it does today?) he was supporting and say yes for my speed of BIG BANG as (Noor) (see [6] )

·         The mass of universe that we can measure is nearly 15% of the total mass of the universe and the other mass 85% around are mass of dark Matter

If we believe that the speed of light is the optimum, this would put us in a trouble if we would like to explain the two examples above [4] and [5], or mass of photon must be infinite. Even some scientist would say that photon is mass less, and I don’t know haw it have energy or gravity if it is mass less?

Simply because if they said it have mass! They must have a theory to explain that, and they don’t have one!

We need a fifth dimension because the transformation equation on which the theory of relativity is based does not correspond with reality. Since according to relativity, thanks to the fifth dimension in adding the constant to the transformation equation, this equation now corresponds with reality. (See the answer for question No. 5)

4-     Are there other dimensions and do we need more than five?

In physics and according to mathematical equations there are (N) dimensions. However, the natural dimensions do not exceed tens.  Moreover, for the moment we only need five dimensions to explain the mysteries of the universe. In the future we will perhaps need other dimensions according to the nature of the problems that will appear. As the fifth dimension is “velocity”, the sixth one will most certainly be "acceleration" it is only guessing!

5-         The Fifth Dimension Proven

According to the foundations established by Lorentz, the fourth dimension transformation equation is:

The differential of the fourth dimension over the differential of time is given by:

=                                                     (1)

Where (v) speed of particle,(C) speed of light, (T) Is fourth dimension and (t) it time.

This is applied to the supposition that the fastest speed will be the speed of light. The quantity under the square root in equation (1) will be positive when (v) is less than (C). It is obvious that Einstein thought that the speed of light is the same in void for all observers independent of the speed of the observer or the source of light. And supposing that the observer will never be at the speed of light, which it is impossible for relativity? But how can we explain what happens? When the observer changes with the speed of light or with a faster than speed of light?

According to the fifth dimension and with the same basic in Lorenz transformation equation to prove the four dimension and adding my assumption to the fifth dimension = INV, where I is, N is time and V is velocity (the fifth dimension).

·         In the case where the compensation of the fifth dimension is by a real value and the distance is a real value or the compensation of the fifth dimension is by imaginary value and the distance is imaginary value, the equation of transformation then becomes:

The differential of the pure dimension / the differential of time = speed of light       (2)

The transformation equation for fifth dimension Case 1:

2- In the case where the compensation of the fifth dimension is by a real value and the distance is imaginary, the equation of transformation then becomes:

The differential of the fifth dimension over the differential of time is given by:

= K                                                         (3)

Where (K)  {1: 4.14 x10}

The transformation equation for fifth dimension Case 2:

3- In the case where the compensation of the fifth dimension is by an imaginary value and the distance is real, the equation of transformation then becomes:

The differential of the fifth dimension over the differential of time is given by

(4)

The transformation Equation for fifth dimension Case 3:

Equation (4) is positive when v is greater than C. This is allied to the philosophy that supposes that there are greater speeds than the speed of light. As the speed of sound is the threshold of classical speeds, the speed limit is the threshold of speeds in our world. This does not mean that the other theories are erroneous but that for each theory there is a speed valid. (We can equally say that Newton’s laws can be verified in the domain where immobility speed and the speed of sound and Euclidean space can be found. The laws of relativity can be verified when speed is between the speed of sound, and the speed of The LIMIT in a non- Euclidean space) .

The main ideas are:

·      The fifth dimension = V (fifth dimension as velocity)

·      The speed of light not absolute and we can bypass it or cross it by a change phase of matter.

·      There is no metaphysics in the universe if we study the event from right dimension or right reference plane.

·      All creations live in space of universe; by different in frequencies (speed, time and energy) then they have different worlds.

·      All materials in universe by definition all cases of matter means in absolute definition any oscillation in universe is matter they going by gravitation to the center of universe except if there is other bigger force attraction field in other direction.

·      Average of density of matter in all the space of universe is equal in all parts and it is bigger than zero.

·      The expanding of universe correlated in the time.

·      The Erath in the center of the universe or it is close and moving to the this direction  ( I said this in my book , page 35 – 1992 (see [7] ), after it has been prove as it is published in astronomy magazine page 45 April 1993  under title “A new map of the Universe” (see [8] )

##### CONCLUSION

Some years ago I said the scientist now and for first time in history of science in a real trouble for two reasons:

1.      They teach us 300 years ago that we came from amoeba. Now the theory of    Big Bang said the universe must be created. I think it is time now to agree that universe has been created as the theory of Big Bang proves it.

2.      The superluminal (Which move 2.5 times faster than the speed of light), and other phenomena {photonette (move 4.7 times faster than the speed of light)} need a new theory which scientist does not have the answer if ordinary people ask them: Haw it is possible after you teach us in the last 100 years that there is no speed faster than the speed of light!

I think it is time now to agree that universe has faster speed than speed of light. By way when I published this theory in my book (1000 questions without answer, 1992) these two applications above ware not published.

Our new born theory says that the velocity is the fifth dimension, and that the universe has a new absolute speed (NOOR) and by this we could explain the metaphysics by physical method and get easy answer for the question in Cosmology.

I think it is time now to give place for the theory of infinity for fifth dimension space-time.

For example from the:

·     Equation No,(1) Lorentz can solve all the problems of all particles in speed less than speed of (Al-Fassl) = = 212132 km/sec (where C, speed of light)

·     Equation No, (2) we can solve the problems of all particles move in speed of C

·     Equation No, (3) we can solve the problems of all particles in speed under C

·     Equation No, (4) we can solve the problems of all particles in speed higher than C,

As (Superluminal, photonette and other phenomena’s)

##### REFERENCES

[1] A. Einstein, "Relativity: The Special and General Theory" end of this book Appendices No, 5 Bartleby 1920

[2] A. Einstein "Relativity: The Special and General Theory" chapter 17,

Bartleby 1920

[3] M.S. El Naschie private communications November 2005,

[4] Astronomy magazine “M87jet Faster than light?” page 20, issue December 1994

[5]  Sciences avenir magazine "Photonette move 4.7 times faster than the speed of light" page 30, issue February 1996

[6] Faster than the speed of light: The Story of a Scientific Speculation, Joao Magueijo.2002, Persuse

Publishing

[7] M, Helmy Said1000 question without answer, Theory of infinity for fifth dimension space-time” page 35 – 1992 Dar El Kalam Beirut

[8] Astronomy magazine "A new map of the universe" page 45, issue April 1993